This is a story about my own pup. I met Adelaide in January 2016 when she was 8 months old. I had known her breeder from my previous job and we have a good working relationship. Addie is a Landseer Newfoundland, and was from lines that are used for showing, working, and breeding. It is great to see these big dogs do their job, and they are wonderful pets to boot.

The concern was Adelaide wasn’t developing well, and seemed to walk funny.  I found some discomfort in her shoulder and hip joints, and suggested sedated radiographs. Those showed some mild hip dysplasia and osteochondrosis dessicans (OCD) lesions in both shoulders. OCD is a developmental orthopedic disease where the cartilage and bone don’t form correctly in a joint. This can lead to pain, arthritis, and the inability to work. It can happen in any dog, and there is some link genetically and environmentally. The key is to identify it early, remove that animal from breeding, and deal with the problem.

I sent Addie home that day with her breeder knowing that she could not be a show or breeding dog. However, she could make an excellent pet. About two weeks later, I called to check up on her and asked if she had been placed in a home yet. She hadn’t, and I took her in in February as a trial. If she would fit in with my pets, I would keep her as my own.

Addie fit right in with Penny and Milo, and soon I had a happy pup in the house. Great, now what do I do? Surgery was needed to minimize the arthritic damage in her shoulder joints. Then keeping her in good physical condition, protecting her joints and getting her moving would be my job. And since this is what I do for my patients, this is an easy fit for me.

Through some colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania, Addie had her shoulder joints cleaned out in April. The goal was doing them arthroscopically to minimize her healing time. The left shoulder went well, but the cartilage flap in her right shoulder was too large to remove. We successfully opened the joint and removed the flap. Then, we placed hyaluronic acid in both shoulders. This is essentially a synthetic joint fluid to help lubricate her joints and minimize further cartilage damage.

Addie recovered very well, and a month later, I spayed her and prophylactically did a gastropexy on her. This is tacking the stomach wall to the body cavity to prevent rotation or volvulus of the stomach during a bloat or GDV (Gastric Dilatation Volvulus) episode. Giant breed dogs are prone to bloat, and by doing this surgery I minimized her risk of gastric torsion. At the same time, I injected her shoulder and hip joints with hyaluronic acid and objectively measured her hips by taking radiographs in the PennHip method.

PennHip allows us to measure the distraction index between the hip joint of dogs, and correlates to how loose the joint is. Since hip dysplasia is based on laxity, the laxer a joint is, the higher the risk of arthritic change. Addie was dysplastic, but her score was mild. This allowed me to not consider a total hip replacement for her. If her scores had been worse, further surgery would be indicated.

After her recovery, I got Addie moving. She had continued to grow as well, and was now a lean 125 pounds. We began to work on walking and hiking. Last summer we hiked every weekend, and walked 2-4 miles each day during the week.

Penny, Addie, and I hiked to the top of Buck Mountain to overlook Lake George in July. By the fall, Addie could hike 10 miles a day nonstop.

Last fall, I had her groomed to a buzz cut. I weighed her the morning before, 125 pounds. Her weight right after the haircut was 113 pounds. 12 pounds of hair, and a reduction in 10% of her body weight. Not only is it easier to keep her clean in this cut, but reducing her body weight minimizes stress on her arthritic joints.

How do I keep her going? It is a multimodal approach. She eats Hill’s Science Diet J/D which is specifically formulated for dogs with arthritis. She also takes Dasuquin Advanced every day. This spring, I will inject her hips and shoulders with platelet rich plasma and bone marrow stem cells to further protect her cartilage.

I also keep her active, we walk 3-5 miles every day, and she plays regularly with Penny and her friend Dexter the Golden Retriever. We work on core strength through exercises on TotoFit equipment, and she gets out and swims when the weather cooperates.

At some point, she may need other medications, but currently she doesn’t have to take them. She is a wonderful girl and I am very thankful to have her as part of my family.

If you have questions about managing arthritis in your pet, please contact me.



Mia’s Journey

Mia is a 7-year-old German Shepherd that I met in October of 2015. She was referred for a left front leg lameness that had been going on for a few months. Mom had Mia since she was a pup, and no major issues were in her history. She was on some supplements, but no medications when I met her.

Mia is a large framed dog, and weighed in at 107 pounds when I first met her. She was about 10 pounds overweight. On physical exam, she had a definite left front lameness, with pain on the palpation of her biceps tendon. I also found bilateral hip joint pain, and lower back pain which had not been found before.

After checking her complete blood count, blood chemistry, thyroid function, and urine for any underlying diseases (there were none), I sedated Mia to further evaluate the painful areas. Radiographs showed severe arthritis in both hip joints. Mia also had spondylosis (bridging arthritis of her vertebrae) and mineralization of the biceps tendon in both shoulders.

Biceps tendonitis can occur for many reasons, but my suspicion in her case was years of chronic overload on her front legs. Because of her painful hips, she would transfer her weight to her front legs and overwork them. This shows us how animals can be sneaky about their problems and hide them from their owners for years.

While sedated, I injected Mia’s biceps tendons with long acting cortisone. The goal here was to provide targeted relief and anti-inflammatory action in the painful leg. Mia’s sedation was reversed and I sent her home to rest for 2 weeks. I discussed with her owner all the findings, and suggested that Mia may need surgery for her hips.

When I saw her again, the left front lameness was nearly resolved. It was no longer tender to the touch, and she walked evenly on her legs. With the pain reduced, we could now work on building strength and addressing her other issues. Mia was seeing our veterinary chiropractor to help with her posture, and I wanted to work more with Mia’s arthritic hips.

I didn’t inject her hips earlier for two reasons. One, it wasn’t why she was currently painful and limping. Two, since they had never been diagnosed before, mom needed some time to process her options on it. At her two week recheck, we started an Adequan injection series. This goes under the skin and penetrates the synovial joints to help improve joint fluid. By doing this we could help her and allow Mia to tell us what she needed. Adequan is a great option for dysplastic/arthritic hips, and I use it as one of my first options.

Another key step in managing arthritis is managing obesity. Mia was 10 pounds overweight, so we worked on a weight loss plan for her. In two months she dropped 8 pounds and was moving much easier! (Mom inadvertently was feeding her 3-4x her daily calorie requirements. Some quick math on my part made for her rapid weight loss.)

After the injections and adjusting her diet, our rehab team worked with Mia through underwater treadmill workouts, photobiomodulation (therapy laser treatments), core strengthening, and muscle building. By December 2015, Mia was 98 pounds and moving very well. She went from walking 10 minutes per walk to 45-50 minutes per walk, 5-7 times a week!

We maintained Mia in a rehab program all winter long and she was doing well. In March 2016, she came in favoring her right hind leg. Mom was concerned it was her hip, but I found pain and swelling in the right knee. My physical exam findings were consistent with a strain or partial tear of her cranial cruciate ligament. This is essentially the ACL in dogs, and is a common cause of injury.

After reviewing options with the owner, I again sedated Mia and injected the right knee with a combination of short acting cortisone and hyaluronic acid. This allowed for targeted anti-inflammatory action (like her shoulders a few months ago) and the hyaluronic acid helps to improve the viscosity in the joint, protecting the cartilage and giving time for the ligament to heal. While I was there, I injected this same combination into both hip joints to relieve discomfort there as well.

Mia resumed her rehab program a week later, and her right knee pain resolved. The swelling I had found before was gone, and she was bearing weight fully on the leg.

In May 2016, Mia’s left hip became very painful. She was having trouble standing up, putting weight on it, and lying down. We tried a course of oral medications, but only had mild improvement. That month our surgeon did an FHO procedure on Mia’s left hip to remove the bone on bone contact that was causing Mia so much pain.

Side note: There are two main surgical options for hip arthritis. One is a total hip replacement, where an artificial ball and socket are placed to create a new joint. This is commonly done in people and is done regularly in dogs also. It is the gold standard and has excellent outcomes. It can be expensive, and there is a restricted period on the patient because the bone must heal and hold the implants in place.

 An FHO (or FHNE) is the other option. The femoral head and neck is removed and a false joint is created. This removes the worn-out cartilage and exposes bone/nerve endings that cause a lot of pain. No implants are needed, and the healing time is about 2 weeks. The key is to be aggressive in rehabilitation with these patients, to encourage them to use the leg. It is not as expensive as a hip replacement and has very good outcomes. It was done in people before hip replacement became the go-to option.

Mia did great through surgery and anesthesia, and excelled in her rehab program. Within a month, she was fully weight bearing, and improved her muscle mass in all her legs. She got back to her 45-50 minute walks within 2 months and we stopped seeing her for rehab in October 2016.

The plan was to keep her active and happy, and then see when/if she would need further rehab or surgery. She would continue to have regular veterinary chiropractic appointments and remain active. This also allowed her owner to catch up on finances. She had pet insurance but it doesn’t cover everything.

I saw Mia at the end of January 2017. She weighed 94 pounds, but was having trouble walking and moving. She was already on gabapentin and meloxicam and her joint supplements. About 2 weeks ago, she had started acting sore and was less inclined to walk, but the last 3 days before I saw her, she was painful when going outside and was favoring her right hind leg, holding it up and not wanting to stand on it.

My physical exam showed that her knee was fine, but the pain was coming from her hip. No neurological problems were noted, but the pain was back in both of her bicep tendons as well. After reviewing options with the owner, I checked some basic organ function (blood tests) and presented treatment options.

We could do the injections we had done before, or we could try a different approach. This new approach would be to collect Mia’s blood and bone marrow and inject platelet rich plasma (PRP) and her own stem cells into the painful areas. This is called regenerative medicine.

Side note #2: Platelet rich plasma contains numerous growth factors that facilitate tissue healing and repair. Growth factors are small proteins that are contained within a compartment inside the platelet. When a platelet is exposed to an area of damage or to fibrinogen, it becomes activated and releases its growth factors. These growth factors play an important role in tissue repair by promoting new vessel formation, enhancing cellular proliferation and promoting extracellular matrix formation.

When stem cells are injected in a concentrated form, they perform various functions to repair and regenerate tissue. They can differentiate into the surrounding tissue types which can include bone, cartilage, tendon, ligament, muscle, and nervous tissue. Other primary functions of stem cells in regenerative therapy includes: activating surrounding resident stem cells, stimulating new blood supply, recruiting additional cell types to aid in tissue repair, stimulating healing and tissue growth with the release of cytokines and growth factors, decreasing inflammation by moderating inflammatory pathways, reducing and/ or eliminating scar tissue, and creating a scaffold for healing tissues.

I did this in mid-February for Mia, and saw her this week for her recheck. Her right hind lameness has resolved, and both shoulder tendons are normal to the touch. This will be a slow road with her, I equate regenerative medicine to re-seeding your lawn. It may not look like you did much the first few weeks, but once the seeds sprout and the grass grows, it can be wonderful. In Mia’s case, it was also covered by her pet insurance.

Mia is back on a regular rehab program with our team and is improving weekly. Mom realizes that she may ultimately need surgery for her right hip, but for now she can work on strengthening Mia again and having her be in the best comfort and shape possible.

Stay tuned for regular updates on Mia. Here are a few pictures of her throughout the process, including her bone marrow collection and joint injections a few weeks ago.

Rescuing a Good Witch

I am a big proponent of rescue groups. There are many “discarded” dogs and cats, most of which are absolutely wonderful pets. Sometimes people can’t keep them because of hard times, or because they did not responsibly think through the potential fifteen-year commitment that pet ownership is.

Whatever the reason may be, thousands of dogs and cats each year need new homes. Some are healthy and just need updating on their basic needs (vaccines, spaying or neutering and heartworm testing) while many need more intense medical attention. I have worked with Peppertree Rescue ( for many years and really appreciate their dedication to dogs with medical needs.

Often times, there are dogs at shelters that do not have space, and they are on the list for humane euthanasia due to overcrowding. Peppertree will find out about them and screen them, and then have them transported to the Albany area where they can be attended to. Some dogs come from the NYC area, while others from as far south as Georgia.

This was the case with Glinda. a sweet, 8-ish year old Golden Retriever cross who could barely see me when I first laid eyes on her. Both of her eyes were nearly crusted shut with green mucous. As I gently cleaned them, she rolled over on her back and relaxed. Her eyes were red and inflamed, and her conjunctivae were severely swollen. When I measured her tear production, it was at about 10%.

It was apparent that she suffered from KCS: Kerato Conjunctivitis Sicca, more commonly known as “dry eye”. This can either be triggered as an autoimmune condition or a side effect of some medications. When the immune system attacks the tear glands, they stop making normal tears and instead makes this ”goo” that does not hydrate the corneas properly. If left unchecked, it can cause permanent blindness. People can have this problem too. I instituted artificial tears and topical medications to stop the immune system from inappropriately attacking the tear glands.

As I continued my physical exam, I found some other areas of concern. While Glinda weighed in at a reasonable 74 pounds, her body condition score was abnormal. She had poor muscle mass in her back legs and was carrying more fat than she should. I also noted that she had decreased extension in both of her hip joints. She was uncomfortable when I manipulated those joints. As I palpated her knees, I found chronic thickening in both the left and right knee. She also had discomfort here and mild instability.

These findings are consistent with arthritic change in both the knees and hips. Often times the hip arthritis is a consequence of hip dysplasia. This is a condition where the hip joints do not form and develop correctly. For more information on hip dysplasia please see

The arthritis and instability in her knees was consistent with chronic damage to her cruciate ligaments. The knee is a fairly complicated joint. It consists of the femur above, the tibia below, the kneecap (patella) in front, and the bean-like fabellae behind. Chunks of cartilage called the medial and lateral menisci fit between the femur and tibia like cushions. An assortment of ligaments holds everything together, allowing the knee to bend the way it should and keep it from bending the way it shouldn’t.There are two cruciate ligaments that cross inside the knee joint: the anterior (or, more correctly in animals, cranial) cruciate and the posterior (in animals called the caudal) cruciate. They are named for the side of the knee (front or back) where their lower attachment is found. The anterior cruciate ligament prevents the tibia from slipping forward out from under the femur. Cruciate ligament tears can occur acutely, in young athletic dogs landing incorrectly, or chronically, in older overweight dogs. Chronic partial tears can lead to instability and cartilage damage in the knee joint. For more information on cruciate ligament disease, please check out

While I was very concerned about her knees and hips, I had a more pressing problem. Glinda tested positive for heartworm disease. This disease is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Once bitten, the heartworm larvae are injected into the animal and over the period of about 6 months grow to be the size of angel hair pasta that live in the animal’s heart and lungs. These worms then reproduce and release microscopic larvae into the pet’s bloodstream. A new mosquito then bites the dog and picks up the larvae and can spread it to other dogs.

Dogs with adult heartworms can have clinical signs such as coughing, exercise intolerance, heart failure, arrhythmias and even death. It is a disease readily preventable with monthly medication. If a dog has adult heartworms they can be treated with medication. Most pets can make a full recovery and live normal lives.

The treatment kills the adult heartworms and the body processes them and removes them from the blood vessels or lung tissue. This process can take a fair amount of time. Patients that are treated need to have restricted activity for one to three months because of the risk of an embolus following treatment. If a patient is too active during that time, the dead worms can become lodged in a vessel and create an embolus. This embolus can block lung tissue or blood vessels and can put a patient in potential respiratory or cardiac arrest. It can also cause nosebleeds, coughing or fever.

At this point, she had a long list of medical issues. The dry eye was readily treatable and so was the heartworm. She had changes in her knees and hips consistent with arthritis, and I suspected she also had damage to her cruciate ligaments. Some patients can have these orthopedic problems managed with conservative therapy (pain medications, rehabilitation), while others may need surgery.

That is a big investment for any owner, let alone a rescue group where the money spent on one dog could potentially help dozens more. I took a moment to call Peppertree’s board member David Sawicki and reviewed her case with him. Glinda would need permanent eye medications at about $25 a month. Heartworm treatment would require two hospital stays a month apart and cost about $600. Her arthritis medication would be about $30 a month. If she needed surgery for her cruciate ligament, it could cost about $3,000 per knee, including post-operative rehabilitation.

David agreed that we had a potential long road with Glinda, but he consented to progressing practically and I promised to keep him posted at each step. I started with chest radiographs to look for significant changes to Glinda’s heart and lungs from the heartworm. Luckily there were none. I then sent out blood and urine to assess her kidney and liver function. This would be important to determine what arthritis medications I could prescribe to manage her problems while we were waiting. Her kidney and liver functions were normal.

So, I started Glinda on her eye medications and a course of Rimadyl to help with her pain and mobility. I then instituted treatment to kill off the adult heartworms that were circulating through her blood stream. She stayed in the hospital for a few days and then was released to her foster parents. I took the time to review all of her medical conditions with them, as her case was pretty complex. She returned a month later for a follow up treatment to eliminate the second stage of heartworms.

I couldn’t believe my eyes. Her fosters, Marlee and Hank Bickel had fallen in love with her and it showed. Glinda’s eyes looked perfect, she was 5 pounds lighter and her coat looked fantastic. Since she could not exercise much, they spent time feeding her carrots (a great diet treat for dogs) and brushing her coat. The steps were small, but I could see that we were on the right path with her. She had great fosters and her body was responding.

Glinda then completed the second stage of her heartworm treatment. This consisted of being in the hospital for 3 days and receiving two injections to kill the adult worms. She was again at risk for an embolus, so she had to continue with strict rest for another month.

She did well during that period and when I saw her a month later, I had the Bickels add in some home therapy for Glinda’s arthritis. Starting with applying moist heat packs to her arthritic joints, they would then massage her muscles and then do passive range of motion exercises with her lying on the floor. Cycling her joints without concussion against the floor would help to improve her ability to flex and extend her stiff arthritic limbs. This would be a daily exercise and would take about 30 minutes to cover all of Glinda’s limbs and back muscles.

When I saw her three months later, two great things had happened. First, the treatment for heartworm had been a success, as she now tested negative – you have to wait at least 4 months after treatment to re-test, or you get a false positive – and second, Glinda was no longer being fostered. The Bickels had adopted her!

With this new foundation, it was time to take another step. Glinda’s knees were consistently bothering her. She had gained a lot of weight being on restricted activity for 4 months and was now 85 pounds. The arthritis in her knees was still present and there was some instability there also. My concern was that she had done more damage to her cruciate ligaments. I discussed this with the owners and we started with a conservative management program. If she did not respond to this, a sedated orthopedic exam and radiographs would be indicated. I prescribed a course of therapy for her in the Rehabilitation Program’s Underwater Treadmill and an Adequan injection series for her.

The buoyancy the underwater treadmill provides would allow Glinda to exercise and lose weight. The Adequan injection series would be twice a week for 4 weeks, then one injection a month thereafter. This would help to improve her joint fluid in all of her joints, as well as reduce the damage to her cartilage.

To further help Glinda, I recommended the Bickels consult with Leigh Saunders, a licensed veterinary technician who was pursuing a specialty in nutrition. Leigh had been instrumental in helping many of my previous patients with their nutritional needs; and I asked for her to help here with Glinda. After calculating the exact amount of calories for Glinda’s target body weight we set up a diet for her. This included the treats she was allowed per day as well as her meals and exercise regiment on the underwater treadmill. We would continue to followup with the Bickels and keep track of Glinda’s weight loss, adjusting her nutrition accordingly.

Over the next 3 months, Glinda worked in the underwater treadmill twice a week, gradually increasing her time and distance with each session. Her comfort level improved and she lost 9 pounds. While she was moving well, I noted further instability in both of her knees.

It was time for a sedated orthopedic exam and radiographs. Her followup bloodwork showed that she was handling the Rimadyl nicely and that she could be sedated with relative safety.

Peppertree Rescue agreed to help with her costs and a short while later we had our answers. Glinda had partially torn the cruciate ligament (ACL) in both of her knees. The right was not as stable as the left, and both had moderate arthritic change. She also had hip dysplasia, characterized by poor coverage of her femoral heads, and consequently had developed arthritis in her hips as well.

Through all the small steps that Glinda had taken, her eyes, pain control, eliminating heartworm, we now had a big step to take. The right knee needed stability. With hip arthritis in both legs and arthritis in both of her knees, the instability in the right needed surgical correction. My plan was to correct that with a procedure called a TPLO: TIbial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy. This would eliminate the need for the cruciate ligament and allow stability in the knee that would allow her to walk on the leg appropriately and slow the progression of arthritis forming in that knee. I was unsure if her left knee would need the same correction down the road.

Surgery was a success for Glinda. The TPLO gave her right knee the stability her body needed. She did very well in her post-operative rehab program, going through low level laser treatments and underwater treadmill sessions. During her therapy she was always a smiling, happy patient. After 12 weeks of restricted activity, her tibia healed and I started to increase her overall activity.

I continued Glinda with monthly Adequan injections, Rimadyl as needed and controlling her weight. Her owners have continued daily massage and passive range of motion exercises with her. She has regular follow up visits and bloodwork to ensure her body is handling her medications appropriately. We would manage the arthritis in her knees and hips as an ongoing condition.

She has become an avid hiker with her owners. She goes for 30-45 minute walks every day and enjoys being outside. While her arthritis has progressed, her multimodal pain management regiment has kept her from having any further surgeries at this time.

Glinda continues to live up to her namesake and has become an AKC Canine Good Citizen. She has participated in the Bark for Life Walk and the Peppertree Furry Fun Run. Glinda may also pursue her Tail Waggin Tutor certification, where she would help children learn how to read. She is still a happy, social dog who is enjoying her “golden years” with her loving owners. I am very thankful to have been part of her rescue.

Here is a recent picture of her out on the trail at Marcy Dam


And one from the summer enjoying a baseball game.